7.2.7.2 Ad Hoc Coalitions and Treaties

Countries can choose to act in concert with each other spontaneously, outside the framework of law, for collaborative self-protection against a specific threat – as in these examples:

  • They can sign treaties, for example to resolve a border dispute, without choosing an external arbitration authority. Renegotiation, withdrawal, or the threat of force are the only means of rectifying breaches of such treaties.
  • They can form ad hoc alliances or coalitions to combat perceived military threats. Again, there is no formal mechanism for rectifying breaches.

If problems arise within ad hoc alliances, countries must rely upon their own strength to resolve them.

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