220.127.116.11 The Need for Leaders to be Popular
Perhaps unsurprisingly, leaders receive more attention in the media for their personalities than for their team-management skills. A leader’s public popularity and communication skills are important for the whole team to gain and retain power. This need adversely affects the process for selecting leaders in both democratic and authoritarian political systems – although governments in authoritarian political systems have less need for short-term popularity.
The focus on personal popularity is magnified by television, which enables voters to become increasingly familiar with the behaviour of leadership candidates. But the selection criteria for TV personalities do not match the job description for a good political leader, and some leaders want to win power just for its own sake: to feed their egos. Their endless search for popularity means that they set policy by reacting to newspaper headlines, which are not a reliable guide:
Many press reports are about crises that could have been avoided by earlier action – as pointed out earlier on this website: Slow reaction.
Fast-moving situations can cause reactive politicians to make abrupt policy reversals, which the public find hard to understand – as was the case with the British government’s response to the coronavirus pandemic in 2020. The Guardian reported on Boris Johnson’s Covid flip-flops: the pledges upended by reality – an article prompted by his sudden decision to ban families from staying with each other at Christmas. The government progressively lost people’s trust and willingness to comply with its edicts on the pandemic because it was so obviously rudderless.
An increased focus on policy might make it more likely that people would elect a leader who would serve their best interests. Ronald Dworkin described American politics as “trivialised”, on the dust jacket of his book Is Democracy Possible Here?, and he outlined the need for a more policy-focused public debate in chapter 5. He argued that American politics are driven by the sound-bites in advertisements, in the relentless drive to increase the popularity of leaders, rather than by reasoned analysis.
A party needs a popular leader in a democracy, so they negotiate – as was demonstrated by How Donald Trump convinced the Republican party to revolve around him, as reported by the Guardian on 12 May 2016. The tensions between him and the party were never fully resolved, though, as shown when he had encouraged his supporters to storm the Capitol building in an effort to try to overturn the result of the 2020 presidential election; as reported then by CNN, Angry Republican leaders float removing Trump from office because of the damage that he was doing to the reputation of the party.
A popular leader can retain public acceptance even in times of hardship, but an unpopular leader is a liability to a political party. Margaret Thatcher, for example, was replaced part-way through her last term of office because she was losing popularity.
This is a current page, updated since publication of Patterns of Power Edition 3a. An archived copy of it is held at https://www.patternsofpower.org/edition03/6344b.htm