This is the bibliography for the Patterns of Power books.  It is updated as new material is incorporated.  It includes works that have been consulted and which contributed to these books – whether in support of their arguments or as examples of contrary positions.

It provides an audit trail, for readers to verify the context of the quotations used and to do further research in topics which interest them.  This is particularly necessary for these books, given that they touch on huge subjects which have been thoroughly explored by other writers; ideas and evidence from multiple sources have contributed to the overall framework.

Whilst most of the references are conventional books, some were retrieved from the Internet.  Where electronic sources were used, the material is subject to change – so access locations and dates have been given.


Acemoglu, Daron.  The Crisis of 2008: Structural Lessons for and from Economics.  Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 2009.  Available in June 2018 at

Ackerman, Bruce and Hassler, William.  Clean Coal, Dirty Air or How the Clean Air Act Became a Multibillion-Dollar Bail-Out for High-Sulfur Coal Producers.  Yale, 1981.

Admati, Anat and Hellwig, Martin.  The Bankers’ New Clothes.  Princeton University Press, 2013.

Akhavi, Shahrough.  Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran: Clergy-State Relations in the Pahlavi Period.  State University of New York Press, Albany, 1980.

Albright, Madeleine.  The Mighty & the Almighty.  Macmillan, London, 2006.

Alesina, Alberto and Glaeser, Edward L.  Fighting Poverty in the U.S.  and Europe: A World of Difference.  Oxford University Press, 2004.  This material was available online in June 2018 at

Alexander, Claire E.  The Asian Gang: Ethnicity, Identity, Masculinity.  Berg, Oxford and New York, 2000.

Americans for Tax Fairness.  Corporate Lobbying on Tax Extenders and the “GE Loophole”.  March 2014.  Available in June 2018 at

Armstrong, Karen.  The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.  Harper Perennial, London, 2004.

Armstrong, Karen.  The Great Transformation: The World in the Time of Buddha, Socrates, Confucius and Jeremiah.  Atlantic Books, London, 2006.

Aslan, Reza.  No god but God: The Origins, Evolution and Future of Islam.  William Heinemann, London, 2005.

Austin, John.  The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (originally published in 1832).  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1958.

Banani, Amin.  The Modernisation of Iran, 1921-1941.  Stanford University Press, 1961.

Bastiat, Frédéric.  What Is Seen and What Is Not Seen.  Published as a pamphlet in July 1850, and available in June 2018 at

Beetham, David.  The Legitimation of Power.  Macmillan Education, Hampshire, 1991.

Berlin, Isaiah.  The First and the Last.  Published in the New York Review of Books, Vol.  XLV, Number 8 (1998).  The quotations from this essay were from an extract that was available in June 2018 at

Bernays, Edward.  Propaganda, published in 1928, and available as a PDF file in June 2018 at

Besley, Timothy and Kudamatsu, Masayuki.  Making Autocracy Work.  Published by the LSE and available in June 2018 at  This article was also published as chapter 11 in the book Institutions and economic performance, by Ethanan Helpman and published by Harvard University Press, 2008.

Bible.  The Revised English Bible.  Oxford and Cambridge, 1989.

Bilmes, Linda and Stiglitz, Joseph E.  The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict.  W.W.  Norton and Company, 2008.

Blix, Hans.  Why Nuclear Disarmament Matters.  Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1968.

Bluth, Christoph.  The British road to war: Blair, Bush and the decision to invade Iraq.  Published by Chatham House in International Affairs, vol.  80, Issue 5, pages 871-892, October 2004.  The text was available in June 2018 at

Brahimi, Alia.  Jihad and Just War in the War on Terror.  Oxford University Press, 2010.  The OUP web-site catalogue entry, including a PDF copy of the book’s introduction, was available in June 2018 at

Burke Edmund.  Reflections on the French Revolution.  Vol.  XXIV, Part 3.  The Harvard Classics.  New York: P.F.  Collier & Son, 1909–14;, 2001.  It was available in June 2018 at

Butler, Lord: as chairman of a Committee of Privy Counsellors.  Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction, reference HC 898, referred to in the text as The Butler Report.  Printed by order of the House of Commons by The Stationery Office, London, on 14 July 2004.  This report was available in June 2018 at

Chan, Joseph.  Confucian Perfectionism: A Political Philosophy for Modern Times.  Princeton University Press, 2013.   Its details, and a download of its Introduction, were available in June 2018 at

Chandrasekaran, Rajiv.  Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone.   Bloomsbury, 2006.  A description of the book was available in June 2018 at

Chang, Ha-Joon.  23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism.  Bloomsbury Press, 2010.

Chang, Ha-Joon.  Bad Samaritans—Rich Nations, Poor Policies and the Threat to the Developing World.  Random House, 2007.

Chomsky, Noam.  The Chomsky Reader.  Pantheon Books, 1987 (American edition) and Serpent’s Tail, 1988 (British edition).

von Clausewitz, Carl.  On War, trans.  Col.  J.J.  Graham.  New and Revised edition with Introduction and Notes by Col.  F.N.  Maude, in Three Volumes.  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & C., London, 1918.  The quoted excerpt came from Chapter 1, which was available in June 2018 at

Collier, Paul.  The Bottom Billion – Why The Poorest Countries Are Failing And What Can Be Done About It.  Oxford University Press, 2007.

Collier, Paul and Vicente, Pedro C.  Violence, Bribery, and Fraud: The Political Economy of Elections in Sub-Saharan Africa.  This paper was published by Oxford University and the draft dated October 2010 was available in June 2018 at

Conrad, Clay. Jury Nullification. Cato Institute 2014.  Available in February 2019 at

Crandall, Robert W.  Pollution Controls.  The Library of Economics and Liberty.  It was available in June 2018 at

Dawkins, Richard.  The God Delusion.  Transworld Publishers, Black Swan edition, London, 2007.

Devlin, Lord Patrick.  Morals and the Criminal Law.  From The Philosophy of Law, ed.  R.W.  Dworkin, Oxford University Press, 1977.

Dowden, Richard.  Africa: Altered States, Ordinary Miracles.  Portobello Books, 2008.

Dunn, Seamus (ed.).  Facets of the Conflict in Northern Ireland.  Macmillan Press, 1995.

Dworkin, Ronald M.  Is Democracy Possible Here?  Princeton University Press, 2006.

Dworkin, Ronald M.  Is Law a System of Rules?  From The Philosophy of Law, ed.  R.W.  Dworkin, Oxford University Press, 1977.

English, Richard.  Excitement, hatred and belonging: why terrorists do it.  Oxford University Press, 2016.  John Gray wrote a review, which was available in July 2018 at

English, Richard.  Terrorism: How to Respond.  Oxford University Press, 2009.  Conor Gearty wrote a review, which was available in June 2018 at

Etzioni, Amitai.  Security First: For a Muscular, Moral Foreign Policy.  Yale University Press, 2007.  In June 2018, the book’s website was at

Ferguson, Niall.  Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World.  First published by Allen Lane, 2003.  Published in Penguin Books, 2004.

Flew, Antony and Stephen Priest (editors).  A Dictionary of Philosophy.  Pan Books, 2002.

Friedman, Milton and Anna Jacobson Schwartz.  A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960.  Princeton University Press, 1971.

Friedman, Milton.  Living Within Our Means.  An interview, on a programme The Open Mind, broadcast in New York City on WPIX, Channel 11, Sunday, December 7, 1975.  The moderator/host was Richard D.  Heffner.  The video and a transcript were available in March 2018 at

Fukuyama, Francis.  The End of History?  Published in The National Interest, Summer 1989.  Available in June 2018 at

Fukuyama, Francis.  The End of History and the Last Man.  Free Press, 1992.

Gauthier, David.  Morals by Agreement.  Oxford University Press, 1986.  The text of Chapter 1 was available in February 2018 at

Geuss, Raymond.  Philosophy and Real Politics.  Princeton University Press, 2008.

Ghazvinian, John.  Untapped: The Scramble for Africa’s Oil.  Harcourt, 2007.

Ginsborg, Paul.  Democracy: Crisis and Renewal.  Profile Books, July 2008.

Godwin, William.  An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness, vol.  1.  G.G.J.  and J.  Robinson, London, 1793.  Available in June 2018 at

Gompert, David C, and Saunders, Phillip C.  The Paradox of Power: Sino-American Strategic Restraint in an Age of Vulnerability.  Published for the Center for the Study of Chinese Military Affairs Institute for National Strategic Studies, by the National Defense University Press Washington, D.C., 2011.  This was available in April 2018 at

Gray, John.  Black Mass: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia.  Allen Lane, 2007.

Green, Duncan.  From Poverty to Power, Edition 2: How Active Citizens and Effective States Can Change the World.  Oxfam International, October 2012.  In July 2018, the book was downloadable from its webpage at

Habermas, Jȕrgen.  Toward a Rational Society: Student Protest, Science, and Politics.  Translation published in Cambridge (UK), 1987.  The relevant material was first published as essays in Technik und Wissenschaft als “Ideologie”, Frankfurt-am-Main, 1968.

Hart, H.L.A.  The Concept of Law.  First Published by the Oxford University Press, 1961.  Second Edition Published 1994.

Hart, H.L.A.  Immorality and Treason.  From The Philosophy of Law, ed.  R.W.  Dworkin, Oxford University Press, 1977.

Hasen, Richard.  Plutocrats United: Campaign Money, the Supreme Court, and the Distortion of American Elections.  Yale University Press, 12 January 2016.  In July 2018 the book’s website was at

Hayek, Friedrich A.  The Road to Serfdom.  Published in 2007 by the University of Chicago Press, and by Routledge in London, as Volume II of the collected works of F.A.  Hayek, edited by Bruce Caldwell.  The original text was published in 1944 by The University of Chicago.  A PDF version was available online in October 2018 at

Hayek, Friedrich A.  Why I Am Not a Conservative.  It was initially published as a postscript to The Constitution of Liberty by the University of Chicago Press, 1960.  It was available in July 2018 at

Hiltermann, Joost.  A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of Halabja.  Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Hobbes, Thomas.  Leviathan.  First published in London, 1651.  It was available in February 2018 at

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).  Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report: Summary for Policymakers.  Cambridge University Press, 2007.  It was available in July 2018 at

Kaldor, Mary.  Global Civil Society: An Answer to War.  Polity Press, Cambridge, UK, and Malden, US, 2003.

Kant, Immanuel.  Fundamental Principles Of The Metaphysic Of Morals.  First published in Konigsberg, 1785.  The translation used was by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (1829-1913) and was made available as a Project Gutenberg eBook, which was available in July 2018 at

Khan, Yasmin.  The Great Partition.  Yale University Press.  New Haven and London, 2007.  In July 2018 the book could be previewed at

Krugman, Paul.  Ricardo’s Difficult Idea.  This essay was written in 1996 and was available in July 2018 at

Krugman, Paul.  The Conscience of a Liberal.  W.W.  Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 2007.

Kurtz, Stanley.  I and My Brother against My Cousin.  This essay was published in The Weekly Standard 04/14/2008, Volume 013, Issue 29 and was available in July 2018 at  It reviewed Salzman’s book Culture and Conflict in the Middle East (listed below).

Lansley, Stewart.  The Cost of Inequality.   Gibson Square Books.  October 2011.

Laski, Harold.  Political Thought in England from Locke to Bentham.  Thornton Butterworth Ltd, London, 1920.

Laws, David and Paul Marshall (editors).  The Orange Book – Reclaiming Liberalism.  Profile Books, 2004.

Lawson, Nigel.  An Appeal to Reason: A Cool Look at Global Warming.  Duckworth Overlook, London and New York, 2008.

Lenin, Vladimir.  The State and Revolution: Class Society and the State.  First published in 1918.  The English version was available in July 2018 at

Leonard, Mark.  What Does China Think?  4th Estate, London, 2008.

Lessig, Lawrence.  Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress – and a Plan to Stop It.  Twelve Books, Hachette Book Group, October 2011.  Free downloads were available in July 2018 from the book’s website at

Levine, Andrew.  Engaging Political Philosophy: From Hobbes to Rawls.  Blackwell, Malden MA and Oxford UK, 2002.

Locke, John.  The Second Treatise of Civil Government.  First published in London, 1688.  The edition used was from 1690, made available as a Project Gutenberg eBook, which was available in July 2018 at

Marçal, Katrine.  ‘Who Cooked Adam Smith’s Dinner?’  Portobello, 2015.  A review was available in October 2018 at

Marr, Andrew.  A History of Modern Britain.  Pan Books, 2008.

Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich.  Manifesto of the Communist Party.  The edition used was from the English edition of 1888, made available as a Project Gutenberg eBook, which was available in July 2018 at

Maslow, A.H.  His “Hierarchy of Needs” was first described in a 1943 paper published in Psychological Review, 50, 370-396; this was available in July 2018 at and an Internet search revealed numerous summaries, including Wikipedia.  It subsequently appeared in his book Motivation and Personality.  Harper & Bros., New York, 1954.

Mayer, Jane.  Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right, describes how billionaires have influenced the American political system.  Doubleday, 2016.

Michel, Christian.  Bricks of Freedom.  Hampden Press, 2008.

Mill, John Stuart.  On Liberty and Utilitarianism.  Bantam Classics 1993.  This edition includes On Liberty, which was first published in 1859 and uses the text of Utilitarianism that was the version published in 1871.  It also includes an introduction by Alan M.  Dershowitz, professor of law at Harvard Law School from 1967.  Both texts were available in July 2018 at

Miller, David.  Strangers in our Midst: The Political Philosophy of Immigration.  Harvard University Press, 2016.

Minton, Anna.  Why are fear and distrust spiralling in twenty-first century Britain?  Published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, October 2008; it was available in July 2018 at

Moghaddam, Fathali M.  The New Global Insecurity: How Terrorism, Environmental Collapse, Economic Inequalities, and Resource Shortages are Changing the World.  Praeger Security International, April 2010.

Moyo, Dambisa.  Dead Aid: Why aid is not working and how there is another way for Africa.  Penguin Books, 2009.

Murphy, Sean D.  United States Practice in International Law; Volume 2, 2002–2004.  Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Newman, Tom.  Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the House of Caesar.  Little, Brown, September 2015.

Nozick, Robert.  Anarchy, State and Utopia.  Basic Books, 1974.  Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy published a description of Robert Nozick’s Political Philosophy in July 2014; this was updated in June 2018 and was available in July 2018 at

Nye, Joseph.  Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics.  Published in the United States by PublicAffairs™, a member of the Perseus Books Group, 2004.

Oakeshott, Michael.  Rationalism in Politics and other essays, first published in 1962.  References taken from the University Paperback edition printed by Methuen in London, 1967.

Oakeshott, Michael.  Religion, Politics and the Moral Life – a collection of essays edited by Timothy Fuller.  Yale University Press, 1993.

Owen, Sir David.  The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power.  Methuen, 2012.

The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary.  Oxford, 1993.

Perez, Carlota.  Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages.  Edward Elgar, 2002.

Peter, Fabienne.  Political Legitimacy.  The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N.  Zalta (ed.).  This was available in July 2018 at

Phillips, Anne.  Multiculturalism without Culture.  Princeton University Press, 2007.  The Introduction was available in July 2018 at

Phillips, Melanie.  Londonistan.  Published in 2006 by Encounter Books in the US and Gibson Square in the UK.

Piketty, Thomas (translated by Arthur Goldhammer).  Capital in the Twenty-First Century.  Harvard University Press, March 2014.  This book was first published as Le capital au XXI siècle, by Éditions du Seuil, September 2013.

Popper, Karl Raimund.  The Open Society and Its Enemies: The Spell of Plato.  Routledge, 1945.  It was available in July 2018 at

Porter, Michael E.  On Competition.  Harvard Business Review Book Series, 1998.

Quran.  The text used is based on the 1934 book by A.  Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran, Text, Translation and Commentary, (published in Lahore, Cairo and Riyadh).  Sacred Texts published this online in 2009-10 and it was available in July 2018 at

Rajan, Raghuram C.  Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy.  Princeton University Press, August 2011.

Ramadan, Tariq.  What I Believe.  Oxford University Press, 2010.

Rawls, John.  A Theory of Justice.  Harvard University Press.  Harvard, 1971.  A PDF copy was available in July 2018 at

Rawls, John.  Political Liberalism.  Columbia University Press, paperback edition, 1996.

Read, Leonard E.  The Coming Aristocracy.  This was available in August 2018 at

Rodrik, Dani.  The Globalisation Paradox: Why Global Markets, States, and Democracy Can’t Coexist.  Oxford University Press, March 2011.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques.  2nd Discourse: What is the Origin of Inequality Among Men, and is it Authorised by Natural Law?  Originally published (in French) in 1754.  It was available in July 2018 at

Rousseau, Jean Jacques.  The Social Contract: or Principles of Political Right.  Originally published (in French) in 1762.  It was available in July 2018 at

Rothbard, Murray N.  The Ethics of Liberty.   First published by Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1982.  It was available in July 2018 at

Rusling, James.  Interview with President William McKinley.  Published in The Christian Advocate 22 January 1903, 17.  It was available in July 2018 at

Salzman, Philip Carl.  Culture and Conflict in the Middle East.  Humanity Books, 2008.

Samuelson, Paul A.  and Nordhaus, William D.  Economics, the 15th International Edition.  McGraw-Hill Inc., 1995.

Sandel, Michael.  Reith Lectures 2009: A New Citizenship.  The BBC published transcripts of this series of lectures on its website.  The transcript of the first lecture, Markets and Morals, was available in July 2018 at

Scanlon, T.M.  A Theory of Freedom of Expression.  From The Philosophy of Law, ed.  R.W.  Dworkin, Oxford University Press, 1977.  Reprinted by permission of Princeton University Press, from Philosophy and Public Affair.” vol.  1, no.  2 (winter 1972), 204-26.

Scanlon, T.  M.  What We Owe to Each Other.  Harvard University Press, 2000.

Sen, Amartya.  The Idea of Justice.  Penguin, 2009.

Shonkoff, Jack P.  and Phillips, Deborah (editors).  From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development.  The National Academy Press, Washington, 2000.  This book was accessible online in July 2018 at

Singer, Peter.  The Life You Can Save.  Pan MacMillan, 2009.  The related website (as at July 2018) is

Smith, Adam.  An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.  First published by Methuen and Co., Ltd, London, 1776.  It was available from the Library of Economics and Liberty in July 2018 at

Smith, Adam.  The Theory of Moral Sentiments.  First published by A.  Millar, London, 1759.  It was available from the Library of Economics and Liberty in July 2018 at

Smith, Penny.  Making Rights Work.  Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited, Aldershot, UK, 1999.

Smith, General Sir Rupert.  The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World.  Penguin Books, 2006.

Sniderman, Paul M.  and Hagendoorn, Louk.  When Ways of Life Collide.  Princeton University Press, 2007.

Sowell, Thomas.  A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political Struggles.  Basic Books, New York, 2002.

Steingart, Gabor.  The War For Wealth: The true story of globalization and how Western society can survive.  McGraw-Hill Education, June 2008.

Stern, N.  The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review.  Cambridge University Press, 2007.  It was available in July 2018 at

Stevens, Irving.  Constitutional & Administrative Law.  Pitman Publishing, London.  Third edition, 1996.

Stiglitz, Joseph E.  Making Globalisation Work.  Allen Lane, 2006.

Stiglitz, Joseph E and Bilmes, Linda J.  The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict.  W.  W.  Norton, March 3, 2008.

Swift, Jonathan.  Gulliver’s Travels.  First published in 1726, it was available in July 2018 at

Tajfel, Henri.  Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations.  This paper appeared in the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 33, 1982.  It was available in July 2018 at

Taylor, Donald M.  and Moghaddam, Fathali M.  Theories of Intergroup Relations: International Social Psychological Perspectives, (Second Edition).  Praeger, 1994.

Teachout, Zephyr.  Corruption in America: From Benjamin Franklin’s Snuff Box to Citizens United.  Harvard, October 2014.

Timmerman, Kenneth.  The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq.  Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

De Tocqueville, Alexis.  Democracy in America, first published in 1835 and 1840.  The edition quoted was edited and abridged by Richard D.  Heffner and published by Penguin Books.  An EPUB version of this book was available in April 2018 at

Trotsky, Leon.  The Revolution Betrayed: What Is the Soviet Union and Where Is It Going? (Translated by Max Eastman).  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1937.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  United Nations, 1948.  The text was available in July 2018 at

U.S.  Public Interest Research Group Education Fund (U.S.  PIRG Education Fund) and Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ).  Offshore Shell Games 2015: The Use of Offshore Tax Havens by Fortune 500 Companies.  October 2015.  Available in July 2018 at

Vile, M.J.C.  Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers.  First published in 1967 by Oxford University Press.  Second edition published by Liberty Fund, Inc., Indianapolis 1998.

Waal, Frans de.  The Age of Empathy.  Harmony Books, 2009.

Walzer, Michael.  Spheres of Justice.  Blackwell, Oxford, 1983.

Wattles, Jeffrey.  The Golden Rule.  Oxford University Press, 1996.

Weber, Max.  Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology, Volume 2.  University of California Press, 1978.  It was available in July 2018 at

Weber, Max.  Politics as a Vocation, lecture, and subsequent essay, 1919. It was available in July 2018 at

Wellman, Christopher H.  Liberalism, Samaritanism, and Political Legitimacy.  Originally published in Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol.  25, No.  3 (Summer, 1996), pp.  211-237, by Princeton University Press.  A copy of this article was available in July 2018 from, subject to JSTOR’s Terms and Conditions of Use, which are available at

Wetherell Margaret (ed.).  Theorizing Identities and Social Action.  Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Wilkinson, Richard and Pickett, Kate.  The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better.  Allen Lane, London, 2009.

Winter, Jay.  Dreams of Peace and Freedom: Utopian Moments in the Twentieth Century.  Yale, 2006.

Woolley, Paul.  Why are financial markets so inefficient and exploitative – and a suggested remedy.  Published by the LSE in 2010 as chapter 3 of a free PDF book entitled The Future of Finance, which was available in July 2018 at

Yeager, Leland B.  Free Trade: America’s Opportunity.  Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, New York, 1954.  This was available in July 2018 at