Turkey is a Muslim country and could be expected to have been upset by anti-Muslim rhetoric prior to the invasion, especially George W. Bush’s use of the word “crusade” (7.4.3).
Turkey denied America the use of its territory to act as a base for operations – even though both countries were members of NATO. This has been ascribed to a failure in diplomacy.
Turkey had problems with its Kurds and didn’t want to encourage Kurdish nationalism by giving more autonomy to the Iraqi Kurds. Turkey therefore had reason to be nervous of the consequences of invading Iraq.
© PatternsofPower.org, 2014
 The Middle East Review of International Affairs published an article entitled The Failure of US-Turkish Prewar Negotiations: An Overconfident United States, Political Mismanagement, and a Conflicted Military, in Volume 10, No. 3, Article 3/10 - September 2006.
 On 3 October 2002, the New York Times published an article by Craig S. Smith entitled Threats and Responses: Ethnic Tensions; Turkey, Mindful of Kurds, Fears Spillover if Change Washes Over Iraq. This article was available in April 2014 at http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/03/world/threats-responses-ethnic-tensions-turkey-mindful-kurds-fears-spillover-if-change.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.