4.2.3 Non-Religious Foundations for Moral Values

Although religion remains strong overall, as noted previously (4.2.2), there are many people who not see themselves as religious. They wouldn’t refer to religious teachings when making decisions about moral questions.  According to humanism.co.uk:

“Throughout recorded history there have been non-religious people who have believed that this life is the only life we have, that the universe is a natural phenomenon with no supernatural side, and that we can live ethical and fulfilling lives on the basis of reason and humanity”.

If obedience to God is not accepted as a basis for a moral code, and if people believe that they only have earthly lives, there are other ways of demonstrating why good behaviour is desirable.  They are all compatible with the Golden Rule ( as a sound basis for moral behaviour – as shown in the following sub-sections:

  • Philosophers have thought about moral values and can help people to think about issues of right and wrong (
  • It has been shown that human beings evolved with a sense of empathy that prompts them to avoid harming others (
  • There is also an argument based upon ‘enlightened self-interest’: that everyone benefits if people don’t normally hurt each other (



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